Квантовая механика

Что вы думаете о том, что «квантовый компьютер невозможен»?

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Нет, IBM пытается быть более реалистичной в отношении «квантового превосходства», которое вряд ли возможно без РЕАЛЬНОГО ИИ.

Google sparked controversy in the scientific community by claiming that it has achieved the quantum supremacy. In a paper published in Nature, Google described the experiments conducted on a new quantum machine, code named Sycamore, which prove the famous benchmark.

Their paper claims that the Sycamore processor took 200 seconds to perform a calculation that the world’s best supercomputer — which happens to be IBM’s Summit machine — would need 10,000 years to match.

It only took a few hours for IBM to publish a paper refuting Google’s claims.

Because the original meaning of the term “quantum supremacy,” as proposed by John Preskill in 2012, was to describe the point where quantum computers can do things that classical computers can’t, this threshold has not been met.

We argue that an ideal simulation of the same task can be performed on a classical system in 2.5 days and with far greater fidelity. This is in fact a conservative, worst-case estimate, and we expect that with additional refinements the classical cost of the simulation can be further reduced.

Figure 1. Analysis of expected classical computing run-time vs circuit depth of “Google Sycamore Circuits”. The bottom (blue) line estimates the classical run-time for a 53-qubit processor (2.5 days for a circuit depth 20), and the upper line (orange) does so for a 54-qubit processor.

The concept of “quantum supremacy” showcases the resources unique to quantum computers, such as direct access to entanglement and superposition. However, classical computers have resources of their own such as a hierarchy of memories and high-precision computations in hardware, various software assets, and a vast knowledge base of algorithms, and it is important to leverage all such capabilities when comparing quantum to classical.

Building quantum systems is a feat of science and engineering and bench-marking them is a formidable challenge. Google’s experiment is an excellent demonstration of the progress in superconducting-based quantum computing, showing state-of-the-art gate fidelities on a 53-qubit device, but it should not be viewed as proof that quantum computers are “supreme” over classical computers.

Но что более важно, потому что квантовые компьютеры никогда не будут господствовать над классическими компьютерами, а будут работать вместе с ними, поскольку у каждого есть свои уникальные преимущества.

О «квантовом превосходстве» | Блог исследований IBM

О самопровозглашенном квантовом превосходстве Google и его влиянии на искусственный интеллект

Как создать реальный ИИ (RAI): от глубокого обучения к глубокому пониманию, от больших данных до интеллектуальных данных

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